Tag Archives: Nebraska Extension

Make Your Bed and Plant in It

February 25, 2019 by
Photography by provided

Preparing a garden bed requires just a little bit of foresight and planning. It is best done in the fall, although many gardeners would rather wait out the cold season and begin preparations in the spring. Springtime preparations still produce fine results (but beginning the process soon after the conclusion of harvesting is ideal).

The same preparations should be used for vegetables and ornamentals alike. Scott Evans, horticulture program coordinator at the Nebraska Extension, shares a few simple tips for preparing successful garden beds:

Removing the prior year’s vegetation creates a healthy garden bed, Evans says. Foliage and fruits left in or on the ground may provide wintering habitats for harmful diseases and insects that can carry into the spring. Evans says that removing debris is best done in the fall because it decreases the chances that pathogens and insects will overwinter in the garden. Springtime removal is important if foliage and debris is not removed in the fall.

Crop rotation is equally important, says Evans. Prepare the bed accordingly and plot out where all of the vegetables will go. Avoid placing vegetables from the same family in the same place year after year. Move them to a different location, “not just a couple of feet—tens of feet,” Evans says.

Planting the same family of vegetables in the same place year after year creates the potential for diseases and insects. For example, the squash vine borer overwinters in pupae in the soil. Relocating the plants out of their immediate reach mitigates some potential for insect problems.

Plants from the same family are not always easily distinguishable. This is due to years of domestication and selection.

“It’s pretty darn amazing,” he says. Tomatoes, potatoes, pepper, and eggplants all come from the same plant family. Mustards, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, and broccoli also belong to the same plant family. Tomatoes and peppers should not be rotated in the same area of the garden due to their relationship. The same is true of Brussels sprouts and broccoli.

Although removing the prior year’s vegetation and rotating crops are essential preparatory steps, there are a few other tricks that can further improve yields. Tilling and spading the soil facilitates root growth.

“Don’t do any tilling or spading when the soil is wet. It can compact the soil,” Evans says, adding that working damp-to-dry soil is OK. Working compost into the top 6 inches of soil also improves it, he says.

Evans recommends staking plants such as tomatoes shortly after planting to avoid disturbing them later when they are large and unwieldy.

He advises planting plants with specific sunlight requirements according to their needs. For example, tomatoes need full all-day sun. Other plants thrive in partial sunlight. Inappropriate light conditions can be a source of disappointment for gardeners.

Keep a gardening journal and write down what does well in particular gardening conditions, he suggests. 

Evans suggests old newspapers as an inexpensive option for mulch (spread in flat sheets) over the soil. Mulch is a protective layer that reduces evaporation, maintains even soil temperature, prevents erosion, controls weeds, and helps to keep produce clean.

Also, Evans warns, don’t forget to use a fence to keep out rabbits.

Preparing a garden bed is often the most labor-intensive part of gardening. With just a few simple steps, one can truly maximize a garden’s potential yield. After preparation and planting comes the most time-consuming (and rewarding) part of the process: watching the garden grow—this is best done with a cool drink in hand and an empty mind.


Visit extension.unl.edu for more information.

This article was printed in the March/April 2019 edition of OmahaHome. To receive the magazine, click here to subscribe.

Trimming the Trees

December 28, 2018 by
Photography by Bill Sitzmann

Trees require maintenance or they can depreciate a property. Knowing when and how to trim them is critical. (It is important to note that this article discusses landscaping trees, whether deciduous or coniferous. Fruit trees require special pruning methods.)

First, tree owners should recognize that trimming or pruning trees harms them. A tree is a living, breathing organism. “Every time we prune, we are wounding a tree,” says Scott Evans, an arborist with the Nebraska Extension in Douglas and Sarpy counties. “Every cut needs to have a purpose.”

Evans says that science once recommended trimming trees in the winter, but now recommends spring as the optimal time for tree maintenance.

“One of the first publications which talked about changing the time was 2004,” he says. “It was published in European Forestry Resources. It was kind of slow to catch on over here. I first heard about these pruning practices in 2015.”

Evans says the new best practice is to avoid trimming most trees in the winter, when the cold affects a tree’s growth. New science says the active spring growth helps the tree recover from the damage caused by cutting.

“We want to have those cells actively growing so they can start sealing as soon as possible,” he says.

The method of cutting is also important. “A good clean cut really allows the tree to respond quicker to the healing process,” Evans says.

Evans recommends pruning only for reasons of safety or a tree’s health. Dead or damaged branches should be managed so they don’t fall off the tree. Falling branches can hurt people, property, and the tree itself by ripping off the bark. When bark falls off, it cannot grow back. The water-conducting tissue that lies directly below the bark could then be damaged when a limb falls off, meaning the portion above the damage may not get the water it needs.

Branches that are crossed or rubbing should also be managed, Evans says, as they will eventually grow into each other, which can create a point for bacteria and decay to harm a tree. Likewise, rubbing creates an entryway for decay-causing organisms.

There are, however, a couple of reasons to trim trees in the winter. Evans notes that a major ice or snow event can damage branches, and those damaged branches should be managed as soon as possible, as further weather events could cause more significant problems. Evans says safety concerns, such as limbs hanging over houses and driveways, should also be immediately addressed in the winter.

There are two varieties of trees that still should be trimmed in the winter: oak, which is susceptible to oak wilt; and elm, which is susceptible to Dutch elm disease. Both diseases are transmitted to the trees via different types of beetles, which are attracted to fresh cuts on these trees. “Trim while the beetles are not actively out and about,” Evans says of oak and elm trees.

And homeowners trying to trim their own trees should keep their personal safety in mind at all times.

“If you have to lift a chainsaw over your head—call an arborist,” he says, noting that tree trimmers can do serious damage to a tree—or themselves. Additionally, having clean tools prevents transmission of disease. Evans recommends sanitizing cutting tools with a solution of 9-parts water to 1-part bleach.


Visit extension.unl.edu for more information.

This article was printed in the January/February 2019 edition of OmahaHome. To receive the magazine, click here to subscribe.

Scott Evans

How Old is Too Old for Home-Canned Food?

October 26, 2018 by
Photography by Bill Sitzmann
Illustration by Mady Besch

Preserving homegrown produce is a favorite pastime for Midwestern gardeners. 

In late summer and fall, mountains of cucumbers turn into pickles and baskets of tomatoes become salsa and spaghetti sauce with the help of canners on stovetops. 

A bountiful harvest then fills the pantry in the form of canned jars. Health-conscious consumers get to know what goes into their processed foods while enjoying the harvest throughout the calendar year.

But beware the curse of plenty, as overabundant jars can accumulate into perpetuity. The question then becomes, “At what point should homemade cans be discarded?”

Foods canned at home are safe to eat for several years—says Nancy Urbanec, a nutrition and health expert with the Nebraska Extension in Douglas and Sarpy counties—so long as the food was properly canned in the appropriate type of jars (glass mason jars and metal bands can be reused) with new lids (fresh seals), and stored in a cool, dry location.

“I’m not going to advocate for eating something five to seven years old,” she says. “Food safety-wise, it’s perfectly safe. Food quality-wise, it will change.” Peculiarities in foods stored in cans for many years may include lack of texture, cloudiness, and sometimes disintegration. 

Urbanec advises using canned foods within a year of processing, while the quality is best. She plans her garden with the intention of producing enough canned goods to last until the next year’s harvest. 

She also advises discarding canned items with rusted or bulged lids. Unsealed jars of canned food in the pantry should be discarded to avoid risk of botulism. 

Urbanec suggests removing the metal rings from the lids of cans that have been opened to make it easier to identify unsealed jars. Sticky exteriors of jars may also be a clue that they are not properly sealed. Jars containing fizz or odd bubbles may be suspect, too.

Unfortunately, botulin bacteria cannot be detected easily. But Urbanec says water-bath canning with adequate acidity or proper pressure canning will keep foods safe to eat. 

The methods of water-bath and pressure canning are slightly different in process but identical in result—they kill any possible botulin bacteria.  Both methods produce safely preserved food. 

What about when the prime year has slipped past already? Urbanec recommends not keeping canned items past one year. But when it happens—and it will happen, especially for folks new to growing and pickling cucumbers—Urbanec suggests using surplus pickles mixed with mayonnaise as a sandwich spread. Pickles can also be mixed with sour cream as a condiment for pita and lamb. Pickle brine with oil makes a delightful salad dressing, and deep-fried pickle spears will disappear off any serving tray. 

Urbanec enjoys sharing her canned produce with friends and family. Before offering them as gifts, however, she always checks to ensure that her lids are safely sealed. So if you have more cans of tomatoes and cucumbers this year than you know what to do with, tie a pretty bow around those mason jars and give them away as gifts. 

If you still have cans of pickles remaining after trying Urbanec’s suggestions—or maybe you just don’t want to share—know that it’s perfectly safe to consume them past one year.


Visit extension.unl.edu for more information about the Nebraska Extension in Douglas and Sarpy counties. 

This article was printed in the November/December 2018 edition of OmahaHome. To receive the magazine, click here to subscribe.

Going to the Fair for 140+ Years

July 8, 2018 by
Photography by Douglas County Historical Society
Illustration by Matt Wieczorek

4-H played a big part in Tracy Behnken’s youth. The Nebraska Extension educator, who grew up on a dairy farm near Bennington, showed dairy cattle and participated in horticulture and entomology competitions from the age of 8 to 18.

So when the Douglas County Fair rolled around each year, Behnken and her siblings filled with excitement. “I’m the youngest of four, and we all showed [livestock] and looked forward to fair time. We’d spend morning ‘til night there, caring for our animals. My cousins were there, and I got to see many of my classmates. And we’d get to see kids from across the county…reconnect with friends we’d made.” 

Behnken, 54, says a highlight was riding the Zipper carnival ride with friends, over and over again. She’d also go to the open-air auditorium and watch the song competition and fashion review show. “And I remember us girls trying to keep away from the 4-H boys who’d try to throw you in the stock tank,” she says, laughing. “They were an ornery bunch.”

The Douglas County Fair has created great memories like Behnken’s for countless Nebraskans for more than 140 years. And that longevity is no small feat, considering the changing landscape of the county, both geographically and culturally.

Just a couple of years ago, the fair appeared to be near an end. Its events and entertainment had been cut to the bone, attendance was dismal, and fair planners wondered if it could survive. 

1906 Douglas County Fair Ribbons

But today, with a new home and management, the fair is poised to make a comeback. So believes Matt Gunderson, chair of the Douglas County Fair Advisory Committee and president of Friends of Extension Foundation, which took over management this year. The 2018 fair will be held July 10 to 15 at Village Pointe in West Omaha and Chance Ridge Event Center in Elkhorn. Chance Ridge won’t have parking, so visitors will need to take weekend shuttles from lots at Village Pointe or Metropolitan Community College’s Elkhorn campus. 

To say that the fair has weathered many changes is an understatement. The first fair (in the area now known as Douglas County) was during 1858 in Saratoga prior to Nebraska statehood, according to the Douglas County Historical Society. But the official Douglas County Fair got its start on a parcel of land in Waterloo in the mid-1800s. A portion of property taxes paid by Nebraska landowners went to the Douglas County Agricultural Society, which initially funded the fair. 

“County fairs started as a means for the rural population to showcase what they’d done all year,” says Vernon Waldren, executive director of the Friends of Extension Foundation. “The farmers came out to show the quality crops they’d grown, compare the size of their melons, and show off their best livestock.”

“Eventually they added home economics—baking, sewing, and other domestics. Then 4-H started in 1902 and became part of Extension, and joined the fair with the goal of educating people about these things.” 

The fair steadily grew, adding musical acts, carnival games and rides, and other family fun. Held in late summer, the event lasted from five to 10 days. The fair stayed in Waterloo for over a century, until the fairgrounds were sold.

In 1988, the Douglas County Fair relocated to Ak-Sar-Ben in Omaha, with the Knights of Aksarben taking over management. The tract of land—bounded by 50th to 72nd and Leavenworth to Center streets—seemed a good fit, offering an indoor arena, a racetrack, and stables with plenty of room for exhibits, livestock, rides, and a midway. The location also brought the action closer to the population center, though not all were happy about the fair leaving a small-town setting. Participation by both 4-H and open-class competitors grew, as events were opened to kids from outside counties. The late-July fair was a boon to the city. 

In 2003, following the sale of Ak-Sar-Ben for development, the fair was forced to move again, this time settling at the Qwest Center Omaha in downtown. The fair combined with the River City Rodeo & Stock Show to become a four-day event in late September. The urban venue did not appeal to many traditional fair-goers, as events were moved indoors, and many complained the fair had lost its identity. But there was no denying the high turnout. “There were as many as 100,000 people in attendance during those four days,” Gunderson says.

The first few years at the Qwest Center (eventually renamed the CenturyLink Center), the fair offered carnival rides in the parking lot. “But economics dictated that that end pretty quick,” says Eddie Biwer, another Friends of Extension Foundation board member. “Too expensive.” 

“Also, the 4-H presence at the [Douglas County] fair was dropped,” Waldren says. “[The kids] went to the Sarpy County Fair. There were still open-class persons exhibiting, but not in those numbers.”

To keep the fair relevant in its new city setting, organizers recognized it had to become more diverse, Gunderson says. “We began hosting chess tournaments and robotics competitions. We worked to become more inclusive.” 

Douglas County Fair McArdle exhibit, 1910

In 2016, the Knights of Aksarben ended its oversight, and the rodeo/stock show parted ways with the fair. Management was turned over to the Douglas County Fair Foundation. During this uncertain time, the group chose to scale the fair back to three days in late July and sought out an inexpensive venue, choosing Crossroads Mall at 72nd and Dodge streets. Mostly vacant, the mall housed most of the fair events indoors, with a few bounce houses and a small petting zoo in an outside lot. 

The bare-bones fair offered some live music, a magic show, a Disney film screening, and the traditional cake and quilt shows. But without carnival rides and livestock events (rabbits and chickens were showcased indoors), the fair proved lackluster and had disappointing attendance. Fair organizers knew big changes had to come for it to survive.

Last year, the Douglas County Fair Board moved the event to Chance Ridge Event Center in rural Elkhorn. The one-day July event was a trial run to see if the venue would suit the needs of the fair going forward. Its tagline was “Back to the Dirt,” referencing the fair’s return to the country and the basics of a county fair (minus the carnival rides). It had the regulars—quilts, bunnies, a “sugar arts” baking competition, as well as a progress show (a livestock event for youth to practice their showcasing skills for the state fair). Like in past years, all events were open class, meaning anyone could compete. A beer garden and music concert closed the event. Though the fair did not boast big numbers, competition entries were up and it was received well by attendees. 

The Friends of Extension Foundation is hoping to sign a multi-year contract with Chance Ridge to continue hosting the Douglas County Fair, Gunderson says. With the help of new sponsors and additional marketing this year, organizers hope to build on this momentum. 

This year’s event tagline is “Where Urban and Rural Meet,” as the fair focuses on educating fairgoers on how agriculture relates to all of us, as well as pathways to careers in agriculture.

“One-third of all industries in Omaha are tied to agriculture in some way,” Gunderson says. “You can work in IT, as an accountant, a welder, or in transportation, and still play a part in agriculture and food production.”

Adds Waldren: “Even if you don’t want to work in agriculture, there are skills we teach to help in everyday life, like how to pick fresh produce or selection of meat…[teaching] people how to be better consumers.”

Gunderson realizes that building the fair back to the size it once was is unlikely given the more urban nature of Douglas County, not to mention club sports, technology, and summer camps competing for kids’ attention. But he hopes parents will take the time out for the fair to “create those special memories with their kids and grandkids, and spur that fire and interest in agriculture. It’s great family time.” 


For more information, visit douglascountyfair.org and douglascohistory.org.

This article was printed in the July/August 2018 edition of Omaha Magazine. 

Cooped Up in the City

June 13, 2018 by
Photography by Bill Sitzmann

Raising chickens in the city has become more common in recent years due to the popularity of urban farming. 

Brett Kreifels, educator for the Nebraska Extension in Cass County (formerly of the Douglas-Sarpy County Extension), has been around poultry his whole life. He runs 4-H youth development for the county and has extensive education in livestock. His grandfather owned a hatchery in Springfield when he was a child. 

Kreifels says there is a trend in favor of urban farming and raising poultry in cities like Omaha because it’s fun and it teaches sustainability. Eggs are an added benefit. For some, it is comforting to know where their meat comes from.

To get started, he says it is important to know local regulations, noting that Omaha and Lincoln have different rules, and Omaha residents must follow both city and Douglas County rules. Much of Sarpy County does not allow chickens, with the exception of those raised by youth in 4-H programs.

Beka Doolittle raises chickens in a part of Elkhorn that is not annexed by the city but falls within Douglas County. She has a permit from the county, but also advises urban farmers to be aware of homeowners association covenants. She raises egg-laying chickens exclusively. Doolittle selected types that lay a variety of colored eggs—they look beautiful in cartons. If one of her birds were to stop laying, she would keep it as a pet. She says raising chickens teaches good life skills, and she enjoys passing them on to her 8-year-old daughter. She says caring for chickens is therapeutic, noting that their strange behavior always makes her laugh. 

Janine Brooks keeps chickens within Omaha city limits. She has many Seramas (a small breed of bantam chickens originally from Malaysia), and enjoys their eggs. It takes five of their eggs to equal one average chicken egg. Brooks says she got into chickens with her 31-year-old daughter, who is autistic. She says her daughter loves the chickens and also raises turkeys. Rearing poultry and watching them grow has been therapeutic for the family and keeps her daughter occupied. Brooks says chickens and turkeys are incredible pets, inexpensive to feed and maintain, and they are clean animals.   

Kreifels says there are no health concerns with raising poultry so long as you keep a clean coop. Otherwise there are risks of salmonella and E. coli. He recommends washing your eggs and your hands after handling chickens. He has been sick from his own birds on one occasion. He attributes it to lax hand-washing practices. “Don’t kiss your chickens,” he says, partly joking.

To get started in Omaha, Kreifels recommends first contacting the Douglas County Health Department. Let them know you are interested in raising chickens. They will want to know your lot size, whether or not you have a fenced-in yard, and what the coops look like. They will send someone out to inspect the facility. If they approve, they will tell you how many chickens you can have and issue you a permit.

It’s that simple. Raise chickens. Eat fresh eggs. Know where your meat comes from. Learn to nurture yourself by nurturing and respecting your food source.


Visit extension.unl.edu to learn more about the Nebraska Extension’s work with local agriculture and livestock.

This article was printed in the July/August 2018 edition of OmahaHome.